After the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Britain, representatives from twelve states (former colonies) met in Philadelphia to draft a constitution in 1787. Washington was elected to be the chairman of the convention (會議). A series of proposals were drafted at the convention. The proposals were passed by each state and became the Constitution of the United States. According to the Constitution, the United States became a federal republic.
The Bill of Rights (《人權法案》) was added to the Constitution of the United States in 1791. It gave the Americans many basic rights such as:
* the right to life, liberty and property;
* the right to make petitions and to trial by jury; and
* the right to freedom of speech, the press, assembly and religion. 

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