2013/06/16


1. 社會訴訴求及政治參與

社會訴求定義:通常指社會人士對社會上的任何事務或現狀有所不滿,並期望帶來正面的轉變。

政治參與定義:政治參與並不只限於投票等政治活動,它泛指所有能對政府政策或措施帶來正面轉變的活動。

我們須找出其爭取訴求的方法,判斷其方法是否合理以及分析其利弊。

政治參與的例子有:司法覆核、遊行、遞交請願信等。


2. 不同的政制

民主政制的定義及例子

在民主政制中,政府的權力由人民賦予。
民主社會的特點是人民的政治權力均等。人人都可參與各級選舉 (例如議會、總統選舉等),享有選舉和被選舉的權利。通過定期舉行的選舉,人民可對政府的施政作監察,並以選舉表達自己的意願。

如:美國、英國、日本... (言論自由、集會自由、生存的權利、遊行自由...)

獨裁政制的定義及例子

獨裁政制中,政府的權力是透過軍事力量、偽選舉或世襲等,並不來自人民。
治參與只有少數人專有。政府用武力、嚴刑、思想箝制、消息封鎖、不合理的法律、不公平的選舉 ,逼人民屈服在管治下 。人民沒有渠道影響政府施政 ,不能選出心儀的領導人管理政府。

如:北韓、緬甸... (消息封鎖執政者不是由人民所選,而是以世襲制奪權...)

公民權利及義務

公民權

公民及政治權利 (確保可以參與政府的管治)

e.g. 人身安全、法律面前人人平等、思想自由、集會自由、表達自由 (司法覆核)

經濟、社會及文化權利

e.g. 醫療權利、教育權利、自由選擇職業權利

* 基本公民權人身自由、言論自由、集會自由。

* 政治權利參選和投票權。

* 社會權利可享有醫療、教育等社會福利的權利。

公民義務

1) 遵守法律

2) 繳納稅款

3) 尊重他人權利

4) 參與公共事務 (聽取各方意見,共同推動社會的發展。)

與香港政制相關的概念
A. 一國兩制
「一個國家,兩種制度」
「一國」:中華人民共和國
「兩制」:中國:社會主義制度
                    香港:資本主義制度
B. 港人治港
香港的管治工作:
香港居民責任
行政長官和主要官員:
中央人民政府任命
主要官員:
行政長官提名
C. 高度自治
享有:
1) 「行政管理權」
2)「立法權」
3)「獨立的司法權和終審權」
香港: 處理區內事務
中央: 外交和防務
D. 基本法
解釋
- 香港的憲制性文件,為「一國兩制」提供法律基礎和保障,並確立香港的管治架構
- 全國代表大會常務委員會負責
- 香港法院亦有權就《基本法》關於香港自治範圍內的條款自行解釋

修改
國務院、人大常委和香港特區均有權提出修改
































3.      法治精神

定義及相關概念

依法辦事

在法治社會,所有人 (包括政府) 都必須遵守法律,尊重法庭的裁決,並切實執行。

法律面前人人平等

在法治社會,所有人在法律前都是平等的。即使政府,也不能凌駕法律,政府違法,同樣須受制裁。

無罪推定

被告在公平和公開的審訊中被定罪前,應被視為清白無罪。他只能被稱為「疑犯」,而非「罪犯」。

司法獨立

法院的裁決不受政府部門、立法機關、政治團體、公眾或其他組織左右。
法官的委任和撤換必須依循法定程序,不能受到干預。

司法覆核

法院針對政府的決定或行為作出審核,並判定是否合法或合憲的程序。
它是公民挑戰政府、維護權利的重要途徑。

法治精神的四個層次

有法可依

法治的的最低層次,社會要先有完備的法律制度。

有法必依

執法者運用法律作為管治工具。 (通常針對執法機關 (即警察),政府部門 / 官員,法庭)

以法限權

約束政府權力的作用,避免它濫用權力。

以法達義 (達:達到 / 達不到)

法律促進社會公義。

分析社會事件是否能體現法治精神

分析

1. 列出該層次

2. 將該層次之定義寫出 (參考以上)

3. 分析該事件是否能體現法治精神

4. 總結句


實作範例

4.      時事知識

適用教學:免費WiseNews 服務  (筆者將資料存在 Gmail)

5.      通識概念

暫只有手稿本,欲取請另行商議

6.  French Revolution

Causes of revolution

Enlightenment thinkers' reasons to disagree Absolutism:

- They think that all people are born equal and free.

- Everyone has to obey the rules of the King, but Locke insist of the rights of liberty.

- Rousseau says that people have the right to make laws. But because Absolutism violates it so that they won't agree with it.

Reasons for The third estate would be the most identifiable (明白) estate with the ideas from the thinkers:

- They have to pay heavy taxes.

- Their lives were hard.

- The enlightenment ideas will change their lives.

- Everyone has to obey the King's order.

- The had no say in policy making. 


Different Aspects 

Political

- Set up the National Assembly

- Had no say in the government

- The rules of Louis XVI is poor.

- Many people discontented with Louis XVI.

Economical

- The third estate need to pay heavy taxes.

- Many wars, many outcome.

- High court expenditure because Louis XVI lived expensively.

- Corrupted officials.

- Natural disasters (crop failure).

Social

- Did all kinds of laboring work.

- Bear the burden of all taxes

- The third estate demanded equal society but the King disagreed.

Different causes of the French Revolution:

Political Problems

- Poor rule of Louis XVI.

- Many people discontented with his rule.

Economical Problems

- Foreign Wars

- Court Expenditure

- Serious Corruption

- Crop failures

Social Problems

- The French king still want to keep the privileges for the First and Second Estate for their loyalty.

- The Third Estate had to bear the burden of all taxes.

- The Third Estate's demand of an equal society was banned by the King.

- The king even increases the taxes on them to solve the economic problems.

Course of revolution
Section
Topic
Sub-topic
Study Key Notes
Course of revolution
Outbreak of the revolution
Calling of the Estates-General
-Estates-General was called in Paris in May 1789 in order to discuss the tax system. However the three estates differed on the voting system. In the end, the Third Estate withdrew from the Estates-General and set up the National Assembly to continue to press for reforms.
-Louis XVI ordered the National Assembly to be closed on June 20 1789. The Third Estate issued the Tennis Court Oath later.
Outbreak of the Revolution
-After the Tennis Court Oath was issued, cities in French became unstable so Louis XVI stationed troops in Paris. He also dismissed an able minister on July 12 1789. This angered the masses so they began to attack Bastille, a symbol of tyranny. This marked the beginning of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
-Declaration of the Rights of Man was proclaimed in August 1789.
-It stated that all people were born free and equal, all people have freedom of speech, the press, religion, and the right to work in government and the government was responsible for protecting these rights of the people.
Setting up the Republic
Escape of Louis XIV
Louis XIV tried to flee with his family in 1791. However they were found by the revolutionaries and taken back to Paris later.
The Revolutionary Wars
Other European countries formed a coalition against France and started the Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802).
First French Republic
-The French revolutionaries ended the monarchy and set up a republic in September 1792. This became known as the First French Republic.
-Louis XVI was put to death on the guillotine in January 1793.
Reign of Terror
-Jacobin Party was formed and it took control of the government after Louis XVI died.
-It ruled France as a police state.
-This period was called the Reign of Terror.
-This period was ended by Robespierre in July 1794.
The Directory
-The Directory was formed and it ruled over France in 1795.
-During the rule of the Directory, Napoleon led the army against the enemies of France. This paved the way for him to seize power in the future.

7. Early development of HK

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